• C Program to Add Two Matrices Using Multi-dimensional Arrays

    Welcome to this blog post on C programming! Today, we will dive into the topic of adding two matrices using multi-dimensional arrays. Matrices are an essential part of linear algebra and have numerous applications in various fields such as physics, machine learning, and computer graphics. Understanding how to perform operations on matrices is crucial for any programmer or data scientist.  So, Let’s begin!

    Introduction to Matrices

    Before we delve into the programming aspect, let’s first grasp the concept of matrices and how we represent them in C. A matrix is a rectangular array of numbers, symbols, or expressions arranged in rows and columns. In C, we can represent a matrix using a multi-dimensional array. A multi-dimensional array is an array of arrays, where each array inside represents a row of the matrix.

    Adding Two Matrices

    Now that we have a basic understanding of matrices, let’s explore how to add two matrices using C programming. The process of adding two matrices involves adding corresponding elements from each matrix and storing the result in a new matrix. The resulting matrix will have the same dimensions as the input matrices. To visualize this, imagine two matrices A and B:

    A = [[a11, a12, a13],
         [a21, a22, a23],
         [a31, a32, a33]]
    B = [[b11, b12, b13],
         [b21, b22, b23],
         [b31, b32, b33]]

    To add these matrices, we add the corresponding elements together:

    A + B = [[a11 + b11, a12 + b12, a13 + b13],
             [a21 + b21, a22 + b22, a23 + b23],
             [a31 + b31, a32 + b32, a33 + b33]]

    Now that we have a clear understanding of how matrix addition works, let’s move on to the implementation in C.

    Implementation in C

    To add two matrices in C, we’ll define a function that takes the matrices as input, performs the addition, and returns the result. Here’s the code:

    #include <stdio.h>
    void addMatrices(int m, int n, int A[][n], int B[][n], int C[][n]) {
        for (int i = 0; i < m; i++) {
            for (int j = 0; j < n; j++) {
                C[i][j] = A[i][j] + B[i][j];
    int main() {
        int m, n;
        printf("Enter the number of rows and columns for the matrices: ");
        scanf("%d%d", &m, &n);
        int A[m][n], B[m][n], C[m][n];
        printf("Enter the elements of matrix A:\n");
        for (int i = 0; i < m; i++) {
            for (int j = 0; j < n; j++) {
                scanf("%d", &A[i][j]);
        printf("Enter the elements of matrix B:\n");
        for (int i = 0; i < m; i++) {
            for (int j = 0; j < n; j++) {
                scanf("%d", &B[i][j]);
        addMatrices(m, n, A, B, C);
        printf("Sum of matrices A and B:\n");
        for (int i = 0; i < m; i++) {
            for (int j = 0; j < n; j++) {
                printf("%d ", C[i][j]);
        return 0;

    Explanation of the Code

    Let’s go through the code step by step to understand how it works:

    1. We start by including the necessary header file, stdio.h, which provides input and output functions.

    2. The addMatrices function takes in the number of rows (m), number of columns (n), the matrices A and B to be added, and an empty matrix C to store the result.

    3. Inside the addMatrices function, we use nested loops to iterate over each element of the input matrices.

    4. We add the corresponding elements of A and B and store the result in the corresponding element of C.

    5. The main function prompts the user to enter the number of rows and columns for the matrices.

    6. It then declares three multi-dimensional arrays A, B, and C, with dimensions determined by the user input.

    7. The user is prompted to enter the elements of matrix A.

    8. Similarly, the user is prompted to enter the elements of matrix B.

    9. The addMatrices function is called, passing the matrices A, B, and C, as well as the dimensions m and n.

    10. Finally, the result matrix C is printed, displaying the sum of matrices A and B.

    Example Run

    To illustrate the working of the program, let’s consider the following example run:

    Enter the number of rows and columns for the matrices: 2 2
    Enter the elements of matrix A:
    1 2
    3 4
    Enter the elements of matrix B:
    5 6
    7 8
    Sum of matrices A and B:
    6 8
    10 12


    Congratulations! You have successfully learned how to add two matrices using multi-dimensional arrays in C. We went through the process step by step, from declaring and initializing the matrices to performing the actual addition and displaying the result. Matrix operations are essential in many computational tasks, and understanding how to work with multi-dimensional arrays in C gives you a solid foundation for further exploring this fascinating domain.

    If you want to delve deeper into this topic, you can explore other matrix operations such as subtraction, multiplication, or even advanced topics like matrix inversion. Additionally, you can experiment with larger matrices and implement error handling for cases where the dimensions of the matrices are not compatible for addition. Remember, practice makes perfect, so keep coding and exploring different scenarios to enhance your skills.

    We hope you found this blog post informative and enjoyable. Stay tuned for more exciting topics in our programming series. Happy coding!

    Further Steps

    If you want to explore more about matrix operations, there are several avenues you can explore:

    • Extend the program to handle matrices with different dimensions.

    • Implement other matrix operations such as subtraction, multiplication, or finding the transpose.

    • Study other linear algebra concepts like matrix inversion, determinant, or eigenvalues.

    • Research applications of matrices in fields like computer graphics, machine learning, or physics.

    Remember, practice is the key to mastering any programming concept. Keep coding, stay curious, and enjoy your journey as a C programmer!