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Coding interviews arenโt always hard to crack; creating a plan and being familiar with the systems can easily help you crack the interview and get a job in your desired company.

Today, weโll be taking IBM coding questions with answers , where we will break down the IBM coding assessment round for you and help you land a job.

IBM is a well-known technology company in America, which means International Business Machines Corporation, headquartered in Armonk, New York, United States.

IBM is one of the most innovative companies with a valuable Brand ranking. There are multiple elements that you need to tackle in order to crack the coding round of IBM. Create a proper plan where you study technical topics and focus on the test input.

The second thing you can do is keep things simple, as people donโt like complexity. Itโs your job to keep the code readable, and it should be understandable for the programmers.

Understand the important things first when youโre doing an interview; you need to be aware of the company and what they do. How they operate, and every other element of the company.

Itโs okay to seek help, and being confident with your unfamiliarity with the topic doesnโt make you a bad candidate; ensure youโre relaxed throughout the rounds. Understand and review before you submit; itโs crucial to operate things patiently and check your code before you offer the solution.

Refactoring your code will only help you to understand what you can do better at it. Letโs understand the overall IBM coding questions process.

To give it to you directly, IBM asks for Coding Questions for their candidates, and the total time will be given to you is 55 minutes. The test is Non-Adaptive and doesnโt have any Negative Marking. To solve the problems, you need to be familiar with these languages, which are C, C++, JAVA, and Python.

| ย 2 Coding questions |

| Non-Adaptive test |

| 55 Minutes |

| No Negative Marking |

**How to find the maximum subarray sum in an array of integers.**

def max_subarray_sum(a): max_so_far = 0 max_ending_here = 0 for i in range(len(a)): max_ending_here = max(0, max_ending_here + a[i]) max_so_far = max(max_so_far, max_ending_here) return max_so_far

ย

To find the maximum subarray sum in an array of integers we have tackled two main variables which are :ย **max_so_far** and **max_ending_here**. Both the elements represent the maximum subarray that has been going and the sum that ends at the current index. The algorithm here stats with initializingย **max_so_far** to 0 then iterates keeping track of **max_ending_here**. After the iterating process is completed it sends the value of **max_so_far**.

ย

**A simple method to sort an array of integers in ascending and descending order.**

def bubble_sort(a): for i in range(len(a) - 1): for j in range(len(a) - i - 1): if a[j] > a[j + 1]: a[j], a[j + 1] = a[j + 1], a[j]

ย

The algorithm here works by consistently comparing the adjacent components which are present in the array and exchanging them to get them in the right order. The algorithm starts and iterates over it, comparing each component to its next one. If the present component is greater than its side one the algorithm exchanges them. The algorithm keeps repeating again and again until itโs sorted.

ย

**The easiest way to find the shortest path between two nodes in a graph**

def dijkstra(graph, source): distances = {} for node in graph: distances[node] = float("inf") distances[source] = 0 queue = [source] while queue: current_node = queue.pop(0) for neighbor in graph[current_node]: new_distance = distances[current_node] + graph[current_node][neighbor] if new_distance < distances[neighbor]: distances[neighbor] = new_distance queue.append(neighbor) return distances

ย

A priority queue is the main element in this function which helps us keep track of distances from sources to other nodes which are present in the graph. The algorithm adds a source node to the priority queue and the priority queue is distinguished by the distances of the nodes in the queue. Shortest distance of node from source node will be present at the front of the queue. The function here eliminates when the priority queue is emptying which tells us nodes presentย in the graph have been traveled and their distances to the source node have been calculated.

ย

**The space complexity of a binary search tree ?**The space complexity of a binary search tree is

**O(n)**, where n is the number of nodes in the tree. This is because a binary search tree must store each node in the tree.ย

**Whatโs the time complexity of inserting an element into a Doubly linked list?**

class Node: def __init__(self, data): self.data = data self.next = None self.prev = None class DoublyLinkedList: def __init__(self): self.head = None self.tail = None def insert_at_beginning(self, data): new_node = Node(data) new_node.next = self.head self.head = new_node if self.tail is None: self.tail = new_node else: self.head.prev = new_node def insert_at_end(self, data): new_node = Node(data) new_node.prev = self.tail self.tail = new_node if self.head is None: self.head = new_node else: self.tail.next = new_node def insert_at(self, index, data): if index == 0: self.insert_at_beginning(data) elif index == len(self): self.insert_at_end(data) else: new_node = Node(data) current_node = self.head for i in range(index - 1): current_node = current_node.next new_node.next = current_node.next current_node.next.prev = new_node new_node.prev = current_node current_node.next = new_node

ย

For this algorithm, we have inserted a new node at the start of the doubly linked list and at the end weโve done the same. To get the index we insert a new node for the specified index. For the time complexity at the beginning and end weโve inserted **O(1) **and at index **O(n)** where **n** is signified as the index.

ย

**Thereโs a binary tree, check if it is a binary search tree or not.**

class TreeNode: def __init__(self, data): self.data = data self.left = None self.right = None def is_bst(root): if root is None: return True if root.left is not None and root.left.data > root.data: return False if root.right is not None and root.right.data < root.data: return False return is_bst(root.left) and is_bst(root.right)

ย

For the binary search tree check system, weโve defined a function at first to check if itโs a binary search tree by recursively validating node values.

ย

**Given a linked list, determine if it has a cycle.**

def has_cycle(head): slow = head fast = head while fast is not None and fast.next is not None: slow = slow.next fast = fast.next.next if slow == fast: return True return False

ย

For this code what we can do is create a function using the well-known** Floydโs Tortoise** and **Hare algorithm** to check if a linked list has a cycle or not.

**Thereโs a string, determine if it is a palindrome or not.**

def is_palindrome(string): string = string.lower() left = 0 right = len(string) - 1 while left < right: if string[left] != string[right]: return False left += 1 right -= 1 return True

ย

Here we have implemented a function is_palindrome to check if the string is a palindrome or not. By using left and right pointers to compare the characters from start and end to the string moving towards the center.

ย

**Given an array of integers, find the two numbers that add up to a given target sum.**

def find_two_numbers_with_sum(array, target_sum): seen = set() for number in array: complement = target_sum - number if complement in seen: return (number, complement) seen.add(number) return None

ย

In this function, weโve used find_two_numbers_with_sum element to find two numbers in an array that gives us a target addition. It uses a set to track numbers which are present while iterating from the array.

ย

**How to find the kth largest element in an array in linear time gives a brief explanation.**

def quickselect(array, k): if len(array) == 1: return array[0] pivot = array[random.randint(0, len(array) - 1)] less_than_pivot = [] greater_than_pivot = [] for element in array: if element < pivot: less_than_pivot.append(element) elif element > pivot: greater_than_pivot.append(element) if k <= len(less_than_pivot): return quickselect(less_than_pivot, k) elif k > len(less_than_pivot) + 1: return quickselect(greater_than_pivot, k - len(less_than_pivot) - 1) else: return pivot

ย

The above code uses the QuickSelect algorithm which helps us to find the k-th smallest element in an unordered list. Base Case, Pivot Selection, Partitioning, and Recursion are the four main elements which we use in this function to get the desired results.

ย

**How do you check if a string is a palindrome or not?ย Write a code and explain.**

def is_palindrome(string): string = string.lower() reversed_string = string[::-1] return string == reversed_string

ย

Here the algorithm is pretty easy as weโve converted the input string to lowercase and then reverse the string and given a command to Returns True if the original string which is added is equal to its reverse, indicating a palindrome.

ย

**Write a function to find the factorial of a number.**

def factorial(number): if number == 0: return 1 return number * factorial(number - 1)

ย

For the factorial function weโve used recursion to calculate the factorial of the number. The base case here is factorial(0) returns 1 and the recursive case here multiplies the number by the factorial ofย โ 1.

**Write a code to find out the greatest common divisor (GCD) of two numbers.**

ย

def gcd(a, b): while b != 0: a, b = b, a % b return a

ย

To get the Greatest Common Divisor weโve used the Euclidean Algorithm mixed with a while loop. The algorithm then Swaps and calculates the remainder until the number at the second position becomes zero. Then it returns the answer

ย

**How you reverse a linked list ?**

def reverse_linked_list(head): if head is None or head.next is None: return head new_head = None while head is not None: next = head.next head.next = new_head new_head = head head = next return new_head

ย

For the reverse linked list we Iteratively reverse a linked list by adjusting its given pointers. We Use three pointers head, new_head, and next in the program to reverse the links.

ย

**Write a function to clone a linked list ?**

def clone_linked_list(head): if head is None: return None new_head = Node(head.data) current = head new_current = new_head while current.next is not None: new_node = Node(current.next.data) new_current.next = new_node new_current = new_node current = current.next return new_head

ย

For a Clone Linked List we Create a new linked list with mixing nodes which have the same data as the original linked list present. Then it Iterates through the original list, making new nodes for each.

**Also Read :**

**Write a function to find the lowest common ancestor of two nodes in a binary tree.**

def lowest_common_ancestor(root, p, q): if root is None or root == p or root == q: return root left = lowest_common_ancestor(root.left, p, q) right = lowest_common_ancestor(root.right, p, q) if left and right: return root return left or right

ย

For this code to get the Lowest Common Ancestor in a Binary Tree we Recursively find the lowest common ancestor of two nodes in a binary tree. Then it returns the root when it comes forward to a node and mixes the results from left and right subtrees.

ย

**Write a code and explain the easiest way to check if a binary tree is balanced or not.**

def is_balanced(root): if root is None: return True left_height = height(root.left) right_height = height(root.right) return ( abs(left_height - right_height) <= 1 and is_balanced(root.left) and is_balanced(root.right) )

ย

For the Balanced Binary Tree Check algorithm we first Recursively checks if a binary tree is balanced or not. Then we compare the heights of the left and right subtrees and make sure that their difference is at most 1.

ย

**Write a function to find the k largest elements in an array of integers.**

import heapq def find_k_largest_elements(arr, k): heap = [] for num in arr: heapq.heappush(heap, num) if len(heap) > k: heapq.heappop(heap) return sorted(heap, reverse=True) # Test the function with an example arr = [3, 5, 2, 4, 1] k = 3 print(find_k_largest_elements(arr, k)) # Output: [5, 4, 3]

ย

For the largest element in the array a function header is given and it would involve sorting the array and returning the elements.

ย

**How you delete a node from a linked list ?**

def delete_node(head, node): """ Deletes a node from a linked list. Args: head: The head of the linked list. node: The node to delete. Returns: The head of the linked list after the node has been deleted. """ if head == node: head = head.next return head previous_node = None current_node = head while current_node != node: previous_node = current_node current_node = current_node.next if current_node is None: return head previous_node.next = current_node.next return head

ย

First up if the node which is to be deleted is head then we update the head to the next node and return to the new head. If itโs not head we traverse the list until we find the node to delete.ย The next pointer will be updated of the previous node to skip the node which is to be deleted in the code.

ย

**Given a graph, check if it is bipartite.ย**

def is_bipartite(graph): colors = {} for node in graph: if node not in colors: colors[node] = 0 if colors[node] == 1: for neighbor in graph[node]: if neighbor in colors and colors[neighbor] == 1: return False for neighbor in graph[node]: if neighbor not in colors: colors[neighbor] = 1 - colors[node] return True

ย

The color nodes of a graph with two colors is 0 and 1 and adjacent nodes have very different colors. Here we use a dictionary which is of colors to store the color of every node that is present to have different colors. By checking if the coloring is valid by ensuring no adjacent nodes have the same color in the code. Then we Return True if the graph is bipartite and False is not.

**A:** The only way to study for the IBM coding assessment is by practicing your skillsets and solving the IBM Coding questions.

**A:** The IBM coding test is 55 minutes long, where you have to solve two coding problems the interviewer gave.

**A:** Above are the IBM coding questions that can be asked for IBM coding round, and everything around Data Structures and Python can be a part of it.ย

**A:** By solving the above given IBM coding questions, you can easily prepare for the IBM coding assessment.ย

In this blog post, we explored some commonly asked IBM coding questions and provided detailed answers. Remember, the key to acing coding interviews is practice. Make sure to understand the underlying concepts behind these questions and try solving them on your own before referring to the answers. Good luck with your interview preparation, and happy coding!

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IBM Coding Questions with Answers Pdf

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